A Soviet-sponsored coup in Czechoslovakia resulted in a communist government coming to power on the borders of Germany. While NATO has added new manpower to its forces, it also has more territory to defend, much of it away from its economic and military center in the United States and Western Europe.
Thus, the American position in the negotiation changed at a very early point, from assurances that NATO forces would not expand eastward in Germany, to requiring that East Germany be allowed to join NATO with few, if any, limitations. But many American and Western officials, including President Bill Clinton below, leftcame to see NATO enlargement as a useful means for ensuring political stability in an increasingly unstable Europe.
President Harry Truman articulated this position to the nation as he announced American military assistance to the Greek and Turkish governments fighting communist-supported guerillas.
Throughout the s, plans put forward about removing Germany as a threat to peace by making it a neutral, largely disarmed country raised the worries of instability in central Europe that might once again drag the continent into war.
Thus, the final agreements, both bilateral between East and West Germany and multilateral between the other actors, recognized that the territory of East Germany would become a part of NATO. The invocation was confirmed on 4 October when NATO The history of nato alliance that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty.
To counter this possible turn of events, the Truman Administration considered the possibility of forming a European-American alliance that would commit the United States to bolstering the security of Western Europe.
As East Germany collapsed into disorganization, it became increasingly clear that the only way to stabilize the state was for West Germany to absorb the former communist territory. These disagreements continued as the conflict in the former Yugoslavia continued, now centered on the Serbian province of Kosovo.
In July Gorbachev announced that Moscow would no longer prop up communist governments in central and eastern Europe and thereby signaled his tacit acceptance of their replacement by freely elected and noncommunist administrations. In the words of senior State Department official Strobe Talbott above, right in It bears repeating that as NATO was trying to redefine itself in the post-Cold War environment, it was not looking to expand.
In Februarywhen communists in Czechoslovakia staged a coup and evicted non-communists from the government, it appeared that the continuing instability in Europe might facilitate the further spread of Soviet communism.
This bond was subsequently subject to fraying, however, in large part because of reasons associated with Russian domestic politics.
Like NATO, the Warsaw Pact focused on the objective of creating a coordinated defense among its member nations in order to deter an enemy attack.
The North Atlantic Council, which was established soon after the treaty came into effect, is composed of ministerial representatives of the member states, who meet at least twice a year. In this agreement, the United States, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom agreed to consider attack against one an attack against all, along with consultations about threats and defense matters.
The alliance dropped plans for expanding to Ukraine and Georgia, while keeping the door open for including them at some point in the future.
Despite changed geopolitical circumstances, most nations in Europe, both those inside and outside of NATO and including many former Warsaw Pact countries, continued to see the alliance as the preeminent source of stability and security on the continent. Its operational emphasis was on training and mentoring.
Turkey also invoked this article twice in during the Syrian Civil Warafter the downing of an unarmed Turkish F-4 reconnaissance jetand after a mortar was fired at Turkey from Syria and again in after threats by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant to its territorial integrity.
Each side was organizing its own sector of occupied Germany, so that two German states would emerge, a democratic one in the west and a communist one in the east. Similarly, the accession of Spain following the end of the Franco dictatorship in the late s legitimized the nascent Spanish democracy.
Together, these countries held territory that formed a bridge between the opposite shores of the Atlantic Ocean, which would facilitate military action if it became necessary.
Many of the original allies, including Britain and France, did not think expansion provided any advantageviews echoed by the American military. The Bosnian War began inas a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia.
In —, a series of events caused the nations of Western Europe to become concerned about their physical and political security and the United States to become more closely involved with European affairs.
In the initial meetings after the fall of the Berlin Wall, American leaders sought to appease Soviet concerns, offering to assure them that NATO forces would not expand eastward in Germany.The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO / ˈ n eɪ t oʊ /; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Washington Treaty of April bound the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Portugal, Norway, Denmark and Iceland into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
NATO is an alliance of 28 countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean. It includes Canada, the United States, Turkey, and most members of the European Union. NATO is an acronym for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Jul 14, · APPLEBAUM: NATO was, on the one hand, a military alliance. It was an umbrella under which NATO armies practiced together. They planned together.
Sep 23, · Watch video · Warsaw Pact: The Communist Alliance. The formation of the Warsaw Pact was in some ways a response to the creation of NATO, although it did not occur until six years after the Western alliance.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: members and partners Map depicting the member countries and partner countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The heart of NATO is expressed in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, in which the signatory members agree that.Download